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Authors:
Rodrigo C.,  Fernando S.D.,  Rajapakse S.

(2020) Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 26 (8) , pp. 979-978. 

 

Abstract

Background Repurposing hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as antiviral agents is a re-emerging topic with new viral epidemics. Objectives To summarize evidence from human clinical studies for using HCQ or CQ as antiviral agents for any viral infection. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science for published studies without time or language restrictions. Cochrane Clinical Trial Registry and Chinese Clinical Trials Registry for trials registered after 2015. MedRxiv for pre-prints within the last 12 months. Study eligibility criteria Interventional and prospective observational studies (with or without a control group) Participants Adults and children with a confirmed viral infection. Intervention Use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as antiviral agents in one or more groups of the study. Methods Two authors independently screened abstracts and all authors agreed on eligible studies. A meta-analysis was planned if similar studies were available in terms of participants, intervention, comparator and outcomes. Results Nineteen studies were eligible (HIV: 8, HCV: 2, Dengue: 2, Chikungunya: 1, COVID-19: 6) including two pre-prints. Nine and ten studies assessed CQ and HCQ respectively. Benefits of either drug for viral load suppression in HIV is inconsistent. CQ is ineffective in curing dengue (high certainty evidence) and may have little or no benefit in curing chikungunya (low-certainty evidence). The evidence for COVID-19 infection is rapidly evolving but at this stage we are unsure if CQ or HCQ has any benefit in clearing viraemia (very low certainty evidence). Conclusions Using HCQ or CQ for HIV/HCV infections is clinically irrelevant now as other effective antivirals are available for viral load suppression (HIV) and cure (HCV). There is no benefit of CQ in dengue and the same conclusion is likely for chikungunya infection. More evidence is needed to confirm if HCQ or CQ is beneficial in COVID-19 infection.

Kisokanth, G., Ilankoon , I., Arulanandem, K., Goonewardena, C., Sundaresan, K. and Joseph, J., 2016. Assessment of Knowledge on Hypertension, its consequences and management practices among hypertensive patients – A descriptive study. Journal of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, 3, pp.E30:1-11.

 

Abstract

Background and objective Hypertension is an important public health challenge in Sri Lanka and in developing countries and is a major risk factor for many other diseases. Lack of knowledge on the benefits of better controlling and seriousness of untreated hypertension as well as the poor management practices are the barriers for an effective hypertensive care. Thus, aim of the study was to describe the level of knowledge on disease, its complications and management practices among hypertensive patients attending Medical Clinics at Teaching Hospital, Batticaloa. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 424 patients diagnosed as ‘Essential hypertension’ attended medical clinics at Teaching Hospital, Batticaloa .Systematic sampling technique with pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used for collection of data and descriptive, inferential statistics for analysis Results The study consisted of 174 (41%) males and 250 (59%) females. Nearly half of the participants believed that heart is affected while 26% mentioned that kidneys could be affected by poor controlled hypertension. Sixty four percent believed that both tablets and lifestyle modifications were the useful strategies for controlling hypertension while 2.4% of participants were not sure of any practicing methods. Approximately 76.0% stated that reducing body weight is effective in managing hypertension while 81.1% accepted that salt reduction as another method. Only 45.0% of participants agreed that increased consumption of fruits and vegetables would improve control of hypertension. Overall knowledge score was inadequate (<50%) among 92% (n=391) with mean of 30.8% (SD ± 15.5). Statistical significant relationship was observed between knowledge score and marital status, family history of chronic disease, educational level and monthly income (p< 0.000). Conclusions Inadequate knowledge on hypertension and its complications were highlighted. Targeted health education strategies are urgently needed to improve their knowledge level to prevent consequences of poorly controlled hypertension. Health care providers could deliver appropriate cost- effective knowledge on hypertension management.